Once i equals j (hukou homogamy), each other x

Once i equals j (hukou homogamy), each other x

log F cijkl = Equation dos + ? x ijkl + ? y ijkl + ? c ( ? x ijkl ) + ? c ( ? y ijkl )

ijkl and yijkl equal 0. xijkl indicates local-spouse-hypergamy (migrant spouse is more educated than local spouse), and yijkl indicates local-spouse-hypogamy (migrant spouse is less educated than local spouse). Thus, when i equals 0 and j equals 1 (migrant husband and local wife), xijkl equals 1 if k > l and 0 otherwise, yijkl equals 1 if k

2nd, i scale ining how odds of hukou intermarriage changes with for each and every wife or husband’s education (Gullickson and you will Torche, 2014), so we further consider version for the field exchange between the two metropolises.

diary F cijkl = Picture dos + ? p = 1 dos ? p u pij + ? q = step one dos ? q w qij + ? c ? p = 1 dos ? p you pij + ? c ? q = step 1 2 ? q w qij

When i equals j (hukou homogamy), both upij and wqij equal 0. upij measures the education effects for migrant spouses to form hukou intermarriages, and wqij measures the education effects for local spouses to form hukou intermarriages. When i equals 0 and j equals 1 (migrant husband and local wife), upij equals 1 if k >p and wqij equals 1 if l > q; when i equals 1 and j equals 0 (local husband and migrant wife), upij equals 1 if l > p and wqij equals 1 if k > q.

Thus, this model estimates separately how migrants‘ and locals‘ likelihoods of marrying across hukou boundaries change as their educations change. Specifically, ?p and ?q capture how the log-odds of hukou intermarriage change for migrants and locals, respectively, when moving up one level of education from either p or q (e.g., from less than high school to high school). Positive values of ? indicate that the odds of hukou intermarriage increase as migrant spouses‘ educations increase, and negative values indicate that the odds of hukou intermarriage decrease as migrant spouses‘ educations increase. ? provides the same information for local spouses. We expect ? to be positive and S to be negative, and we expect n and ? to be less pronounced in Shanghai than in Shenzhen.

Detailed Results

Descriptive leads to Desk step one show hukou area pairings out-of partners from the urban area. During the Shanghai, on 47% out-of mini-census was contracted ranging from several migrants; within the Shenzhen, one payment is more than 70%. On 38% out-of marriage ceremonies in it one or two local spouses in the Shanghai, while 15% of marriages had a couple regional partners inside the Shenzhen. Clearly, some one had a tendency to wed within their hukou standing classification in metropolitan areas. Both in cities, marriage ceremonies between a neighborhood partner and you will good migrant wife have Salvadorian naiset avioliittoon been much probably be than just marriage ceremonies anywhere between a beneficial migrant partner and you may an area spouse that occurs (13% compared to. 3% for the Shanghai and you can 11% compared to. 4% in the Shenzhen). The fresh percentage of hukou locality homogamy is similar on two urban centers. But really, we should translate the outcome having alerting, because display away from migrants varies in these a couple of towns. New relative measurements of migrants and locals creates architectural marital options for individuals to find prospective partners and in the end ). Log-linear data lets us examine the level of hukou homogamy, internet of one’s compositional outcomes, by handling for limited distributions off hukou reputation.

Table 1.

We first introduce the new withdrawals of studies attainment for migrant husbands, regional husbands, migrant wives, and you may regional spouses when you look at the for each and every city, respectively, within the Profile step one . An average of, migrants is actually shorter knowledgeable than simply locals, regardless of gender, both in Shanghai and Shenzhen. Certainly one of migrants, the male is better knowledgeable than simply ladies in each other Shanghai and you may Shenzhen. Having said that, certainly one of natives, the newest gender pit inside the degree was sometimes small otherwise stopped: local men normally are only somewhat best educated than the women alternatives during the Shenzhen, and you can local feminine an average of are more experienced than just their male competitors inside Shanghai. Log-linear activities manage into the knowledge inequalities anywhere between men and women and you may between locals and you will migrants to recapture the new relationships anywhere between spouses‘ education and you will between instructional and you will hukou area assortative mating, websites of your limited withdrawals regarding spouses‘ attributes.